Peer-Reviewed Journal Details
Mandatory Fields
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
The implications of high carbon monoxide levels in early pregnancy for neonatal outcomes
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Optional Fields
Breath carbon monoxide test Fetal growth restriction Maternal smoking Small-for-gestational-age
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the implications of increased maternal Breath Carbon Monoxide (BCO) levels at the first antenatal visit for subsequent birthweight (BW) and neonatal outcomes. Study design: Secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study. Pregnant women aged ≥18years who understood English were recruited (n=250). However, only women who delivered a normally formed baby weighing ≥500g were analysed (n=234). At the first antenatal visit, a research questionnaire was completed and a BCO test was performed. Obstetric and neonatal data computerised by midwives at the first antenatal visit and updated after delivery were also analysed. Results: Results from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for smoking was observed at a BCO cut-off level of 3ppm (sensitivity 85%, specificity 90%). Of the 234 women, 53 (22.6%) had a BCO ≥3ppm but only 36 (15.4%) disclosed smoking to the midwife on routine questioning. A further 23 (9.8%) were classified as non-disclosers based on a research questionnaire and/or a BCO measurement ≥3ppm. No relationship was found between the self-reported number of cigarettes daily in early pregnancy and BW (r=0.05, p=0.78). However, an inverse relationship was found between maternal BCO levels and BW (r=−0.31, p<0.001). BCO levels ≥3ppm in early pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of emergency caesarean section, low birth weight, BW <25th centile, fetal distress and having two or more adverse pregnancy events (all p<0.05). Smoking non-disclosers had babies with decreased BWs (−400.1g, 95% CI 141.1–659.0g, p<0.001), and higher rates of BW <25th centile (56.5% versus 25.3%, p<0.001), small-for-gestational-age (21.7% versus 9.1%, p<0.001) and fetal distress (39.1% versus 16.0%, p<0.01) compared to non-smokers Non-disclosers at the first antenatal visit also had a 22% higher rate of having two or more adverse pregnancy events (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that an increased BCO level was associated with a lower BW and increased risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. This strengthens the case for universal BCO screening at the first antenatal visit. A high BCO reading should be an indication for referral to stop smoking services referral and close fetal surveillance.
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