© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014. This contribution describes how the compendium is ordered and structured in presenting the major issues and controversies in current-day global bioethics. After briefly explaining the emergence of global bioethics as well as the growing involvement of international organizations, it is pointed out how the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is active since more than two decades in the field of bioethics. These activities have led to the unanimous adoption in 2005 of the first international legal document in global bioethics, the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The Declaration presents 15 ethical principles for global bioethics. It is the framework of these principles that provides the structure of the compendium. The main question addressed in this volume (Compendium of Global Bioethics) is whether and how these global principles are applied within the heterogeneous contexts of different countries with various religions and traditions.