Synchrotron X-ray topography is well suited for a detailed characterisation of the real structure of single crystals and devices based on single crystalline materials. The nature and distribution of dislocations, stacking faults, inclusions etc. as well as long range strain from processing are of high interest especially in semiconductor wafers and electronic devices. To overcome the limitations of the classical photographic film method, we use a high resolution digital imaging detector. The digital scan of selected reflections allows the fast mapping of large sample areas with high resolution in combination with the high dynamic range of the CCD-camera. We report our first applications to the metrology of 300 mm Si wafers. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.