© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. This chapter is an introduction to the section on neuroenhancement, which is regarded as an intervention in the central nervous system in order to “improve” certain aspects of a person’s “healthy” or “normal” performance. This can be accomplished by pharmaceutical means, surgery, and/or technology. The section on neuroenhancement begins with a chapter looking at pharmaceutical mood enhancement. It then centers on smart drugs followed by a chapter on the use of brain-computer interfaces for enhancement purposes and another one analyzing moral neuroenhancement. The section concludes with a chapter presenting some general reflections on neuroenhancement.