Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication after adult orthotopic liver transplantation (AOLT). Besides EBV and immunosuppression, relatively little is known about the pretransplant clinical parameters associated with the risk of PTLD, and the benefit of using EBV surveillance to predict EBV-associated disease in AOLT patients is uncertain. The aims of this single-center study were to monitor EBV viral loads (VLs) in AOLT patients and to investigate any associations with age, sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus, posttransplant times, and indications for transplantation. 1275 blood samples that were collected from 197 AOLT patients 1 day to more than 15 years after transplantation were investigated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction for EBV and CMV DNA. Seventy-two percent of the patients had EBV DNAemia less than 100 days after transplantation without clinical manifestations. No association was observed between the EBV copy numbers and the time since transplantation. EBV DNAemia was weakly associated with male sex but was not associated with age, CMV serostatus, or indications for AOLT. The highest EBV VL levels were observed in patients who presented with congenital liver diseases, whereas patients with viral hepatitis maintained high EBV VLs after transplantation. None of the patients developed PTLD during the study period; however, 3 patients presented with EBV-associated diseases. In conclusion, EBV DNAemia is common in AOLT patients, and routine EBV surveillance has limited value for predicting EBV-associated morbidity or mortality. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.